Authors’ conclusions: the results of the comprehensive study allow us to establish a quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in fetuses and newborns whose mothers had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.
Reviewers’ commentary: this ecological study of data of the Zika virus infection, from the epidemic in French Polynesia, provides solid data for claiming that the Zika virus infection in pregnant women (mainly during the first trimester) can determine fetal or neonatal microcephaly in some cases. The embryofetopathy seems to happen in a small percentage of cases, but the infection spreads widely by the population.
Ruiz-Canela Cáceres J, García Vera C. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:41
Authors’ conclusions: there were no safety events of concern with the new adjuvanted vaccines in children under 10 years, although the unexplained increased of certain events, as meningitis or narcolepsy, in some of them makes it necessary to warrantee continued safety monitoring.
Reviewers’ commentary: the new adjuvanted-vaccines seem safe in short and medium term in children under 10 years. The shortcomings of the meta-analysis, the increase of certain serious adverse effects, and the lack of knowledge about long-term effects, make it advisable to maintain a high vigilance level
Albi Rodríguez MS, Aparicio Rodrigo M. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:42
Authors’ conclusions: although the evidence is limited, there appear to be signs and symptoms associated with primary dentition, especially gingival irritation and drooling.
Reviewers’ commentary: primary tooth eruption seems to be related to common symptoms such as drooling and gingival irritation, but it is less clear that it is the cause of other symptoms that appear in common diseases of infants.
Orejón de Luna G, Esparza Olcina MJ. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:43
Authors´ conclusions: iron supplementation in infancy, with o without iron supplementation in pregnancy, improved gross motor test scores at nine months.
Reviewers´ commentary: iron supplementation in infants at high risk of iron deficiency, has a limited benefit on gross motor skills at nine months. In infants of very low-income mothers with high risk of iron deficiency, iron prophylaxis at doses higher than usual might be advisable
Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez E, Aparicio Rodrigo M. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:45
Authors´ conclusions: low dose of hydrocortisone initiated within the first 24 hours of life and continued for ten days increased the frequency of bronchopulmonary dysplasia-free survival in this high-risk population, and was associated with early extubation and a reduced need for patent ductus arteriosus ligation. No significant difference was reported in other clinically important outcomes between groups in the study population as a whole.
Reviewers´ commentary: low dose of systemic hydrocortisone discretely increases survival without DBP. However, it is necessary to extend the available data on the safety of this scheme before recommending their widespread use.
Ochoa Sangrador C, Andrés de Llano JM. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:46
Authors´ conclusions: the questionnaire adapted from the Coeliac Disease Dutch Questionnaire emerged as reliable for use in Spanish children with celiac disease. Overall, both children and parents felt the disease had no substantial negative impacts on patient health-related quality of life.
Reviewers´commentary: the questionnaire, adapted from the Dutch Questionnaire, seems as a useful tool to assess quality of life in celiac patients and their relatives. There seems to be no negative burden of disease on quality of life perceived by patients and relatives.
Molina Arias M, Cuestas Montañés EJ. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:47
Authors’ conclusions: a multicomponent intervention was associated with higher rates of sun protection behaviours among young children. This was corroborated by finding a smaller change in skin pigmentation among children who received the intervention.
Reviewers’ commentary: there is previous evidence to provide information on the prevention of solar radiation, but in relation to an intervention, like of the type suggested by this study, we need better evidence that it is more cost effective, and we need also more precise information on the duration of the long-term effect and on the importance of each of the measures that could be used.
Ruiz-Canela Cáceres J, de Lucas García N. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:48
Authors´ conclusions: the study did not show the efficiency of the early introduction of allergenic foods in the analysis for intention of treating, but analyzing only the cases that completed the protocol the prevention of the food allergy is a dependent dose.
Reviewers´ commentary: this study no significant limitations on the validity, although losses and lack of adherence to the protocol could influence an underestimation of the effect. The early introduction of potentially allergenic foods in breastfed infants without risk of allergy, does not seem to have a protective effect for the development of food allergy.
Fernández Rodríguez MM, Martín-Crespo Blanco C. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:49
Authors´ conclusions: NO2 exposure and traffic intensity deteriorate the area of verbal cognitive development of children living in cities in the developed world.
Reviewers´ commentary: the results of the study show an association of small magnitude between air pollution by traffic and cognitive impairment. Although there are some methodological limitations, they do not invalidate the application to our environment, since environmental pollution is a major problem worldwide.
Ortega Páez E, Modesto i Alapont V. Evid Pediatr. 2016;12:50