# The Journal: Publication Structure

### Editorial:

It contains a comment, made by any of the direction team or by any of the Scientific Commitee member, on one of the articles subjected to critical appraisal. That comment can also be commissioned to a professional external to the journal and expert in the area discussed in the article.

### “Translated Documents” Section:

This section contains documents belonging to secondary resources. Previously to their translation the appropriate authorization has been obtained.

### “Bases of Evidence-Based Medicine” Section:

This section contains articles with didactic content which aims to present the fundamentals of evidence-based medicine, as well as various aspects of research methodology.

### “Critical appraisal of Article” Section:

#### Selected journals and resources:

A selection of journals for reviewing has been made, based on those publications and databases which have been found to be more likely to contain valid and useful information for the pediatrician clinical daily practice.1,2.

By consensual agreement of the entire Grupo de Trabajo de Pediatría Basada en la Evidencia (Pediatric Evidence Based Working Group) a few more journals have been added.

The journals and other resources selected are the following: (sorted by type of biomedical journal and by alphabetical order).

#### Operating circuit for the Communication between Reviewers and the Scientific Committee members: Steps to follow

First step:

Each reviewer will examine the journals he/she is responsible for, picking those articles which, due to their title and/or abstract, may be of interest for the clinical practice of the pediatrician. They are evaluated using the five criteria scale “ESE-ARTE” (Evidence-based Selection of ARTicles Scale) which is an adaptation of the MORE scale by adding another three criteria (table 1) what gives a 35 points maximum score for each article. Using the “small methodological filter” criteria, the reviewer will make a first approach to the study quality.

View/Hide Table 1

It is interesting to know the breakdown or distribution of the total punctuation scored among each one of the four sections of the ESE-ARTE scale.

Second step:

Once the score has been kept for each article, every reviewer will classify them in a highest to lowest punctuation order and remit them to a Scientific Committee (SC) member, sending the full article.

Third step:

A SC member is in charge of collecting all the references of the sent articles. It is also in charge of establishing a general classification of all the articles remitted by the reviewers, according to the ESE-ARTE scale. At least four types of articles will be represented in each publication issue: about treatment/prevention, about diagnostic tests utility, about prognosis and about etiology (also, economic evaluation articles are been increasingly published for what they must deserve our attention). The types of study designs to fit these different types of articles are: clinical trials/systematic reviews/meta-analysis; diagnostic test evaluation studies; cohort studies; and control and case studies.

One aim of the SC is to always find contents to each section (as long as the articles have enough quality to be included)

Fourth step:

The collected articles are classified by just one member of the SC, in the categories mentioned in the previous step (etiology, diagnostic, therapeutics/prevention, prognosis). In each category, an article ranking is established. This task is done by the same person who collected the articles, and will change every three-month period.

Fifth step:

Once the task of arranging and classification is done, this SC (Scientific Committee) member sends the articles to other two persons of the same committee in order to make a little methodological filter (View/Hide table 2) that by no means is a thorough critical appraisal of the article, but it has the objective of ruling out those articles that had so obvious faults that made advisable not to carry on with its later evaluation by the pair of critical appraisal reviewers. These two people will score again the articles with the ESE-ARTE scale, now with four items (without the point “I have already worked on it”, that is indicative for assigning the articles to each pair of reviewers).

Sixth step:

The previously mentioned two members of the SC independently apply the validity criteria, resolving possible discrepancies by consensus.

Seventh step:

Once the articles are stratified by sections and classified in each section with the tool ESE-ARTE, the SC, according to the table 2 criteria, filters them, and then the resulting articles are distributed among the current pairs of reviewers. The two SC members, that had reviewed the material and methods section of the articles, are in charge of distributing then to the pairs of reviewers. The reviewers preferences (informed in the score of the section “I have already worked on it” of the ESE-ARTE scale) will be taken into account in the assignment of the articles. Each pair of reviewers does a thorough reading of the article and a critical appraisal3,4 (a structured summary and a critical commentary). In order to homogenize some aspects of the critical commentary, it is encouraged to follow the methodological scheme VARA (VAlidity, Relevance and Applicability).

• Justification: Start the commentary with the justification of the study, framing it into the current situation of the knowledge on the subject, and telling why this study is relevant in this context.
• Validity or scientific rigor: Comment on aspects of the study population and its environment that could limit its application in our situation (validity of the study). Besides, comment other methodological limitations of the study that had relevance in the interpretation of the results (remember that these limitations must not be so important that made invalid the conclusions, because if this were the case, the article should not had been summarized).
• Clinical relevance: Comparing the results (magnitude of the effect) with other studies is recommended, especially if they are contradictory, with the aim of helping to interpret the conclusions.
• Applicability to the clinical practice: Next, a question like: “what recommendation can be given from the study results?” must be answered. This question addresses the applicability of the results to the everyday practice. Some aspects, such as the impact on clinical practice, the possible adverse effects, the economic cost, etc., that could help to assess the practical usefulness of the recommendation, must be taken into account.

No more than five relevant bibliographic references can be cited following the Vancouver rules (references are not compulsory). No more than two tables and/or figures can be made if the reviewers consider them necessary (they are not compulsory).

Once the article is critically appraised (CAA), it is sent to the SC for its review. Each CAA is reviewed by two SC members that had not participated in its elaboration.

Key words or descriptors from the Medical Subject Heading of the National Library of Medicine of United States are assigned to each article (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/meshhome.html). The descriptors are written in English with its appropriated translation to Spanish.

Eight step:

Finally, all the CAA approved by the SC are sent to the journal webmaster for their adaptation and publication in the web site.

### Bibliography:

1. Riordan FA, Boyle EM, Phillips B. Best paediatric evidence; is it accessible and used on-call? Arch. Dis. Child. 2004;89;469-471. [Consulted: 08/07/05]. Available at:http://adc.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/89/5/469
2. Birken CS, Parkin PC. In Which Journals Will Pediatricians Find the Best Evidence for Clinical Practice? Pediatrics. 1999;103;941-947. [Consulted: 08/07/05]. Available at:http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/103/5/941
3. EBM. Working Group. Users' Guides to Evidence-Based Practice. Web de la Universidad de Alberta (Canadá). [Consulted: 08/07/05]. Available at: http://www.cche.net/usersguides/main.asp
4. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) and Evidence-based Practice. CASP Learning Resources. [Consulted: 08/07/05]. Available at: http://www.phru.nhs.uk/casp/resourcescasp.htm

# Equipo editorial

### Directores de la publicación

• Manuel Molina Arias
• Eduardo Ortega Paez
• Pilar Aizpurua Galdeano
• María Aparicio Rodrigo
• Albert Balaguer Santamaría
• Cristobal Buñuel Álvarez
• Carlos Cuello García
• Jaime Javier Cuervo Valdés
• Eduardo Cuestas
• Víctor de la Rosa Morales
• María Jesús Esparza Olcina
• Mercedes Fernández Rodríguez
• César García Vera
• Paz González Rodríguez
• Pedro Martín Muñoz
• Vicent Modesto i Alapont
• Gloria Orejón de Luna
• Giordano Pérez Gaxiola
• Sergio Francisco Puebla Molina
• Juan Ruiz-Canela Cáceres

• José Luis Díaz Rossello. Correo electrónico: diazjose [at] clap [dot] ops-oms [dot] org. Centro Latinoamericano de Perinatología y Desarrollo Humano (CLAP/SMR) Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Organización Mundial de la Salud
• Carlos González Guitian. Licenciado en Geografía e Historia. Jefe de Servicio de la Biblioteca del Complexo Hospitalario Juan Canalejo de A Coruña (España). Profesor Asociado de la Universidade de A Coruña. Coordinador de la sección Biblioteca Virtual de Fisterra.
• Fernando A. Navarro. Especialista en Lenguaje Médico.
• José Antonio Sacristán. Especialista en Farmacología Clínica. Consultor en Farmacoeconomía y estudios de evaluación económica.

# Reviewers and Authors

• Pilar Aizpurua Galdeano. Pediatra. Area Básica de Salud- 7 La Salut. Pg. Encants 2/n. Badalona (España).
Correo electrónico: 19353pag@comb.es.

• Pedro L Alonso. Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM) Manhiça (Mozambique). Barcelona Center for Internacional Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clí nic / Institut dInvestigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona (España).

• Jesús Andrés de Llano. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital General del Río Carrión. Palencia (España).
Correo electrónico: jmandres@ono.com.

• María Aparicio Rodrigo. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Entrevías. Área 1. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: 916501216@telefonica.net.

• Jose Luis Aparicio Sánchez. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital General de Lanzarote. Lanzarote (España).
Correo electrónico: japasan@gobiernodecanarias.org.

• María Arriaga Redondo. Pediatra. Médico adjunto del Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital 12 de Octubre de Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: doc803@hotmail.com.

• Luis Azpurua Eraso. Pediatra Intensivista. Coordinador de Emergencia Pediátrica Hospital Pérez de León. Caracas (Venezuela).
Correo electrónico: lazpurua@cantv.net.

• Carlos Alfonso Bada Mancilla. Pediatra. Servicio de Urgencias. Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas. Lima (Perú).
Correo electrónico: ifocar@yahoo.com.

• Albert Balaguer Santamaría. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital General de Catalunya. Universitat Internacional de Catalunya. Barcelona. (España).
Correo electrónico: balaguer.albert@gmail.com.

• María Isabel Barrio Gómez de Agüero. Pediatra. Médico Adjunto de la Unidad de Neumología Pediátrica Hospital Universitario La Paz. Madrid (España).

• Domingo Barroso Espadero. Centro de Salud Jesús María Álvarez. Don Benito. Badajoz (España).
Correo electrónico: pediatricworld@msn.com.

• Javier Benito Fernández. Pediatra. Servicio de Urgencias de Pediatría. Hospital de Cruces-Barakaldo. Bizkaia. (España). Miembro de la Sociedad Española de Urgencias de Pediatría (SEUP).
Correo electrónico: javier.benitof@osakidetza.net.

• Elena Bergon Sendin. Pediatra. Servicio de Neonatología-Hospital 12 de Octubre. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: ebergon@hotmail.com.

• Guillermo Bernaola Aponte. Pediatra. Master en Epidemiología Clíínica. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital General Sergio Bernales. Lima (Perú).
Correo electrónico: guiber37@yahoo.com.

• Antonio Bonillo Perales. Pediatra. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Hospital Torrecárdenas. Almería (España).
Correo electrónico: abonillop@supercable.es.

• José Cristobal Buñuel Álvarez. Pediatra. ABS Girona-4 (Institut Catalá de la Salut). Girona (España).
Correo electrónico: p416ucua@pgirona.scs.es.

• Nilton Yhuri Carreazo Pariasca. Pediatra. Hospital de Emergencias Pediátricas. Lima (Perú).
Correo electrónico: yhuroc@gmail.com.

• Fernando Carvajal Encina. Pediatra. UCIN Hospital de La Serena y Escuela de Medicina Universidad Católica del Norte (Chile).
Correo electrónico: fcarvajal@ucn.cl.

• Roberto Casanova Gianuzzi. Pediatra. Centro Médico Galeno Recoleta y Centro Médico ColinaSalud (Chile).
Correo electrónico: rcasanova@medscape.com.

• Jose Antonio Castro Rodríguez. Pediatra. Escuela de Medicina. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile (Chile).
Correo electrónico: jacastro17@hotmail.com.

• María Costi. Departamento Médico Lilly. Madrid. (España).
Correo electrónico: costi_maria@Lilly.com

• Mercedes Chaffanel Peláez. Pediatra. Departamento de Pediatría. Unidad de Infectología e Inmunodeficiencias. Hospital Materno-Infantil, Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya. Málaga (España).

• Juan Pablo Chalco Orrego. Pediatra independiente (Perú).
Correo electrónico: jpcho33@yahoo.com.

• Rosa Blanca Cortés Marina. Pediatra. ABS Girona-3 Montilivi. Institut Catalá de la Salut. Girona (España).
Correo electrónico: p416urom@pgirona.scs.es.

• Gil Daniel Coto Cotallo. Pediatra. Profesor titular de Pediatría de la Universidad de Oviedo y Médico adjunto de Neonatología del Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias. Miembro del Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo (España).
Correo electrónico: cotodaniel@hotmail.com.

• Magdalena Cubel Alarcón. Unidad Valenciana del Sueño. Hospital Quirón. Universidad Católica de Valencia. Valencia (España). Jaime Javier Cuervo Valdés. Pediatra. CS Urbano I. Mérida (España).
Correo electrónico: jjcuervov@terra.es.

Correo electrónico: eduardo.cuestas@gmail.com.

• Ana Isabel Díaz Cirujano. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Rosa Luxemburgo. Madrid (España.
Correo electrónico:anaisabel.diazc@gmail.com.

• Jose Luis Díaz-Rossello. Pediatra. Centro Latino Americano de Perinatología y Desarrollo Humano y Unidad de Salud de la Mujer y Reproductiva (CLAP/SMR). Organización Panamericana de Salud. Organización Mundial de la Salud (Uruguay).
Correo electrónico: diazjose@clap.ops-oms.org.

• Javier Díez Domingo. Instituto de Vacunas de Valencia (VIVA). Centro de Salud de Nazaret. Valencia (España).
Correo electrónico: jdiez@ya.com.

• Manuel de la Rosa Fraile. Microbiólogo. Servicio de Microbiología del Hospital Virgen de las Nieves de Granada. Miembro del Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo (España).

• Victor De la Rosa Morales. Pediatra. Policlínica de Especialidades Médicas, Tlaxcala (México).
Correo electrónico: vdlarosa@prodigy.net.mx.

• Roxana Escola Furlano. Centro Médico Interdisciplinario Arrecifes. Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina).
Correo electrónico: roxescola@yahoo.com.ar.

• María Jesús Esparza Olcina. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Barcelona. Móstoles. Madrid (España).

• Belen Fernández Colomer. Pediatra. Médico adjunto de Neonatología del Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias. Miembro del Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo (España).
Correo electrónico: bcolomer@arrakis.es.

• José Manuel Fernández Menéndez. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital de Cabueñes. Gijón (España).

• Mercedes Fernández Rodríguez. Pediatra. Centro de Salud de Potes. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: mer763@hotmail.com.

• Eduardo Fino Narbaitz. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital General San José de San Martín. Carhué. Buenos Aires (Argentina).
Correo electrónico: fino@invertel.com.ar.

• Beatriz Flores Antón. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada. Madrid. (España).
Correo electrónico: befloan@gmail.com

• José Galbe Sánchez-Ventura. Pediatra de Atención Primaria. C. S. Torrero - La Paz. Zaragoza. Miembro del Grupo PrevInfad / PAPPS (España).
Correo electrónico: galbester@gmail.com.

• César García Vera. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Sagasta-Ruiseñores. Zaragoza (España).

• Luis García-Marcos. Profesor Titular de Pediatría. Universidad de Murcia. Coordinador de las Unidades de Neumología y Alergia Pediátricas. Hospital Infantil Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca. Murcia (España). Miembro del Comité Ejecutivo del ISAAC Internacional y Coordinador del estudio en España.
Correo electrónico: lgmarcos@um.es.

• Juan Gervás. Médico general, Equipo CESCA, Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: jgervasc@meditex.es.

• Álvaro Gimeno Diaz de Atauri. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital Puerta de Hierro. Madrid (España) .
Correo electrónico: agimenodatauri@gmail.com.

• Carlos González Díaz. Profesor Asociado de Pediatría Universidad del País Vasco. Investigador principal del Centro ISAAC Bilbao (España).
Correo electrónico: carlos.gonzalezdiaz@osakidetza.net.

• Javier González de Dios. Pediatra. Departamento de Pediatría. Hospital General Universitario de Alicante. Universidad Miguel Hernández. Alicante. (España).
Correo electrónico: javier.gonzalezdedios@gmail.com

• María Paz González Rodríguez. Pediatra. CS Barrio del Pilar. Área 5. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: paz.gonzalez@ctv.es.

• Juan Antonio Guerra de Hoyos. Servicio Andaluz de Salud. Sevilla (España).

• María Inés Hidalgo Vicario. Pediatra. Acreditada en Medicina del Adolescente. Centro de Salud Barrio del Pilar. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: ineshidalgo@telefonica.net.

• Vicente Ibáñez Pradas. Pediatra. Servicio de Cirugía Pediátrica, Hospital General de Castellón. Castellón (España).
Correo electrónico: ibanez_vic@hotmail.com.

Correo electrónico: victorina@ctv.es.

• Blanca Juanes de Toledo. Pediatra. Equipo de Atención Primaria El Espinillo. Área-11. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: blancajuanes@telefonica.net.

• Sarah Lafuente. Barcelona Center for Internacional Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic. Institut dInvestigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona. Barcelona (España).

• María López Maestro. Pediatra. Adjunto. Servicio de Neonatología Hospital 12 de Octubre. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: mariamaestro@gmail.com.

• José Blas López Sastre. Pediatra. Catedrático de Pediatría de la Universidad de Oviedo. Jefe de Servicio de Neonatología y Pediatría del Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias. Coordinador del Grupo de Hospitales Castrillo (España).
Correo electrónico: jose_lopez_sastre@hotmail.com.

• Jesús López-Herce Cid. Sección de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: pielvi@ya.com.

• Enrique Llerena Santa Cruz. Médico Interno Residente de Pediatría. Hospital Universitari de Girona Josep Trueta. Girona (España).
Correo electrónico: santum7@yahoo.com

• Serafin Málaga Guerrero. Pediatra. Sección de Nefrología Pediátrica. Departamento de Pediatría. Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias. Universidad de Oviedo (España).
Correo electrónico: ihgjmfmdj@hotmail.com.

• Eusebio Macete. Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM) Manhiça (Mozambique). Barcelona Center for Internacional Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clínic. Institut dInvestigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (España).

• Ascensión Marcos. Profesora de investigación del CSIC. Tesorera de la Federation of European Nutrition Societies. Expresidenta de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición. Grupo de Inmunonutrición. Departamento de Metabolismo y Nutrición. Instituto del Frío. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: amarcos@if.csic.es.

• Pedro Martín Muñoz. Pediatra. Hospitales Universitarios Virgen del Rocío. Sevilla (España).
Correo electrónico: pedromartinm@telefonica.net.

• María Luisa Martínez-Frias. Directora del Centro de Investigación sobre Anomalías Congénitas. Instituto de Salud Carlos III. Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Profesora del Departamento de Farmacología de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: mlmartinez.frias@isciii.es.

• Rodrigo Matamoros. Pediatra Trabajo independiente. La Plata (Argentina).
Correo electrónico: rodrimatamoros@gmail.com.

• Ariel Melamud. Pediatra. Trabajo independiente. Buenos Aires (Argentina).
Correo electrónico: amelamud@roemmers.com.ar.

• Ana Melgar Bonis. Pediatra. Servicio de Neonatología Hospital 12 de Octubre. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: anitamelb77@yahoo.es.

• Santiago Mintegi Raso. Pediatra Servicio de Urgencias de Pediatría. Hospital de Cruces-Barakaldo. Bizkaia. (España) Miembro de la Sociedad Española de Urgencias de Pediatría (SEUP).
Correo electrónico: santiago.mintegi@osakidetza.net.

• Vicent Modesto i Alapont. Pediatra. Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (España).
Correo electrónico: vicibego@telefonica.net.

• Jose Luis Montón Álvarez. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Mar Báltico. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: jlmonton@ya.com.

• Emilio Monteagudo Montesinos. Pediatra. Jefe de Sección de Pediatría. Hospital Infantil La Fe. Valencia (España).
Correo electrónico: emonteagudo@aehh.org.

• David Moreno Pérez. Pediatra. Departamento de Pediatría. Unidad de Infectología e Inmunodeficiencias. Hospital Materno-Infantil. Complejo Hospitalario Carlos Haya. Málaga (España).

• Carmen Moya. Delegada del Gobierno para el Plan Nacional sobre Drogas (2007). Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: criesgo@msc.es.

• Sandra Murga Cabero. Médico Interno Residente de Pediatría. Hospital Universitari de Girona Josep Trueta. Girona (España).
Correo electrónico: sandramurga@Hotmail.com

• Carlos Ochoa Sangrador. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital Virgen de la Concha. Zamora (España).
Correo electrónico: cochoas@meditex.es.

• Manuel Olivares Grohnert. Pediatra. Centro de Diagnóstico del Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos de la Universidad de Chile (Chile).
Correo electrónico: molivare@inta.cl.

• Gloria Orejón de Luna. Pediatra. Centro de Salud General Ricardos. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: gloriaglo04@hotmail.com.

• Eduardo Ortega Páez. Pediatra. Centro de Salud “Macarena”. Distrito metropolitano. Granada (España).
Correo electrónico: eortega.paez@gmail.com

• Carmen Rosa Pallás Alonso. Pediatra. Jefa del Servicio de Neonatología del Hospital 12 de Octubre de Madrid. Profesora asociada de Pediatría de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Miembro del grupo PrevInfad, Miembro del Comité de Lactancia Materna de la AEP. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: keka.pallas@gmail.com.

• José María Paricio Talayero. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital Marina Alta, Denia. Alicante (España). Diplomado en Diseño y Estadística en Ciencias de la Salud. Comité de Lactancia Materna de la Asociación Española de Pediatría.
Correo electrónico: pariciojm@terra.es.

• Leo Perdikidis Olivieri. Pediatra. EAP Los Fresnos. Torrejón de Ardoz. Área III. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: lperdikidis@gmail.com.

• Giordano Pérez-Gaxiola. Pediatra. Hospital Pediátrico de Sinaloa. Culiacán. (México).
Correo electrónico: giordanoperez@hps.org@mx

• Gonzalo Pin Arboledas. Unidad Valenciana del Sueño. Hospital Quirón Valencia Universidad Católica de Valencia. Valencia (España).
Correo electrónico: gpa@comv.es.

• Sergio Francisco Puebla Molina. Pediatria. Departamento de Pediatrí a Clí nica Alemana de Temuco. Magí ster en Epidemiologí a Clí nica. CIGES y Departamentos de Pediatrí a y Salud Pública. Universidad de la Frontera (Chile).
Correo electrónico: spuebla@ufro.cl.

• Julio Ramos Lizana. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital Torrecárdenas. Almería (España).
Correo electrónico: Jramoslizana@telefonica.net.

• Antonio Manuel Redondo Romero. Pediatra. Acreditado en Medicina del Adolescente. Centro de Salud Cabo Huertas. Alicante (España).
Correo electrónico: aredondo50@yahoo.es.

• Dolores Rivas Aguayo. Servicio Andaluz de Salud. Sevilla (España).
Correo electrónico: lolariv@gmail.com.

• Cristina Rivas Juesas. Pediatra. Servicio de Pediatría. Hospital de Torrevieja. Alicante (España).
Correo electrónico: crisrijue@hotmail.com.

• Carlos Rodrigo Gonzalo de Liria. Pediatra. Unidad de Enfermedades Infecciosas e Inmunología Clínica. Servicio de Pediatrí¬a. Hospital Universitario Germans Trias i Pujol. Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona. Barcelona (España).
Correo electrónico: Carlos.Rodrigo@uab.es.

• Raúl Alberto Rojas Galarza. Unidad de Emergencia. Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño. Lima (Perú).
Correo electrónico: ralroga@yahoo.es.

• Jesús Ruiz Contreras. Departamento de Enfermedades Infecciosas. Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre. Madrid (España).
Correo electrónico: gpa@comv.es.

• Juan Ruiz-Canela Cáceres. Pediatra. Distrito Sanitario Sevilla. (España).
Correo electrónico: jruizc@aepap.org.

• Francisco Javier Ruza Tarrío. Pediatra. Jefe de Servicio de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos y Urgencias del Hospital Infantil La Paz. Profesor Titular de Pediatrí¬a de la Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. (España). Rosa Sánchez Andrade. Pediatra. Centro de Salud Luis Vives. Alcalá de Henares. Área 3. Madrid (España).

• Jesús Sánchez Etxaniz. Pediatra. Servicio de Urgencias de Pediatrí¬a. Hospital de Cruces-Barakaldo. Bizkaia. (España). Miembro del Grupo de Trabajo de Patología Respiratoria de la Sociedad Española de Urgencias de Pediatrí¬a (SEUP).
Correo electrónico: jesus.sanchezechaniz@osakidetza.net.

• Jahit Sacarlal. Centro de Investigação em Saúde de Manhiça (CISM) Manhiça (Mozambique). Barcelona Center for Internacional Health Research (CRESIB), Hospital Clí¬nic / Institut dInvestigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (España) Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo (Mozambique).
Correo electrónico: Jahit.sacarlal@manhica.net.

• José Antonio Sacristán. Especialista en Farmacología Clínica. Consultor en Farmacoeconomía y estudios de evaluación económica. Departamento Médico Lilly. Madrid. (España).

• Alejandro Suwezda. Pediatra. Trabajo independiente. Berlín (Alemania).
Correo electrónico: suwezda@gmx.de.

### To whom is published Evidencias en Pediatría

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# Publication rules and guidelines for authors

The publication Evidencias en Pediatría (EP / Evidences in Pediatrics) accepts articles sent for publication in the following sections:

• From the article to the patient.
• Bases of evidence based medicine.

The “Critically Appraised Articles” section accepts the participation of all those who wish to participate. For this purpose all the persons who want to participate can send a mail to the publication secretary: gestion@luaediciones.com

The rules for publishing in “Evidencias en Pediatría” adapt as much as possible to the recommendations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) (updated in October 2008). "Evidencias en Pediatría" (EP) adopts the definition of editorial freedom of the World Association of Medical Editors. http://www.wame.org.

### How to send the articles to the publication secretary:

Evidencias en Pediatría
Lúa Ediciones, 3.0
Email: gestion@luaediciones.com
Phone: +34 616 722 687
(Being “+34” the country code for calls to Spain)

### Acceptance, review and publishing of the articles

After the reception of the articles, a response will be sent to the authors. Once evaluated by the Editorial Team, it may be sent to the Scientific Committee (SC) of the publication for its evaluation.

### Responsibility of the authors

The authors are responsible for the rigorous observance of the rules of good clinical practice and research commonly accepted. In all cases the author must send a letter in which is expressly mentioned:

That by sending the articles o this publication, they accept expressly the following:

• That it is an original work and has not been published before.
• That it has not been sent simultaneously to another publication.
• That all the authors have contributed intellectually to its elaboration.
• That all the authors have read and approved the version of the manuscript finally sent.
• That they accept the policy terms of the Editors of Evidencias en Pediatría (EP) in what has to do with authors and editors rights, in relation to the manuscript sent for publication.
• That they agree that the Editorial Team does not necessarily share the points of view that the authors expose in the article.
• The authors must declare if they have or not possible conflicts of interest in relation to the article submitted (in the event that this declaration were affirmative they must send a brief enumeration and description of those conflicts).

### Rights of the authors, editors and readers

Evidencias en Pediatría (EP / Evidences in Pediatrics) does not require, as a condition for publication, that the authors decline their right on the property of their work. The relationship between the publication and the authors shall be regulated as is described in the privacy policy.

Evidencias en Pediatría (EP) recognizes as inalienable the intellectual and moral rights of the authors in relation with the content of the Publisher manuscripts. All use must recognize this authorship expressly. Therefore EP accepts, that the authors may deposit, in institutional repositories or personal webs, an electronic copy, without format, of the version revised and finally accepted for publication, once this has been published. This deposit is responsibility of the authors and must mention expressly the original source (Web of “Evidencias en Pediatría”) where the published version can be found.

The property and rights over the published manuscripts, in their final format, is reserved and shared by Evidencias en Pediatría (EP) and the authors, and the management of those is of exclusive competence of the editorial. The property and rights of the published manuscripts, in its final format, are reserved to and are shared by the journal Evidencias en Pediatría (Evidences in Pediatrics) and the authors. The management of the manuscripts is left to the publisher as an exclusive competence. Nevertheless, as the purpose of EP is the maximum diffusion and circulation of the manuscripts in the scientific and professional community, it is allowed the download of a copy (from the site http://www.evidenciasenpediatria.es) for individual private non-commercial use.

All use outside these limits must count with the previous authorization by the Editorial. Moreover, in some cases, the copy and use of these articles can be subject to economic rights that the Editorial will manage in a shared manner with the authors by means of the editorial standards of negotiation currently at use. In this case it may be formalized as a management contract of editorial rights.

The editorial policy in relation to the users of the web of "Evidencias en Pediatría" (http://www.evidenciasenpediatria.es) assumes the terms of the license of Creative Commons® of the type “Attribution-Non-Commercial-No Derivative Works 3.0“ Spain (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es/).

# Publication rules

## 1.- “Critically Appraised Articles “section (CAA)

The text must adapt to the following scheme:

• ### First page: abstract of the Critically Appraised Articles (CAA)

Each CAA will be accompanied by an abstract in Spanish with its corresponding translation to English. This abstract can not exceed 150 words and it will be composed of the following sections:

• Conclusions of the authors of the study: the authors of the CAA should expose in one phrase the principal conclusions of the authors of the original study.
• Reviewers commentary: in this section and in one or two short phrases with the intention to resume the critical commentary section, exposing the basic outlines of methodological validity, clinical importance, and applicability in clinical practice.
• Key words: using descriptors from the National Library of Medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh and its equivalents in Spanish: http://decs.bvs.br/E/homepagee.htm
• ### Second page:

• Descriptive title: it is not just to merely copy or translate the title of the article, but to describe the purpose and the conclusion of the study.
• References in the article, following the Vancouver style: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html
• Authors: all the persons who have made the article, mentioning workplaces, countries and email addresses.
• Key terms: they should be chosen from the MeSH -Medical Subject Index- listed in the Index Medicus. To check the key terms you can consult:
• The sending date of the article to the Scientific Committee.
• ### Third page:

• #### Structured abstract

Extension: 2,500-3,000 characters (without spaces). It should not be a copy or translation of the abstract of the article, and it has to be developed with the following structure, depending on whether it is an original article or a review article.

• #### Original article

• Objective: to define in one sentence the objective of the study. It corresponds to the clinical question that the researchers intend to respond.
• Design: describe the type of study. If necessary, indicate some basic characteristics of the architecture of the study (e.g. length of treatment in longitudinal studies).
• Location: indicate the type of institution and level of care (health centre, hospital...) the number of schools or centers that have done the study and location (province / autonomous region and/or country). Descriptive terms to define the type of centre (teaching institution, university, country etc) could be used, but without the specific mention of the actual name of the centre.
• Study population: the number of subjects included as well as the main criteria for their selection and their sources. It should be included the number of withdrawals or dropouts.
• The following heading corresponds to the definition of the study factor and take a different name depending on the purpose of the study:
• Intervention (studies on the effectiveness of preventive or therapeutic intervention, improving quality and health economics). It should indicate how the groups have been formed, the number of subjects assigned to each of them and describe in detail the study interventions and comparison.
• Assessment of the risk factor (in studies on causes and risk factors for health problems). A detailed definition of the effects estimated in the study, their risks factors, and a description of the way in with those risk factors were measured.
• Evaluation of prognostic factors (in studies on prognosis). Detailed definition of prognostic factors and how they are measured.
• Diagnosis test (in studies on the usefulness of diagnostic tests or screening). Detailed definition of the tests evaluated and the reference standard. It should indicate whether both tests are applied to all subjects and, when done, indicate if it was done in an independent and blindly way.
• Outcome measurement: description of the variables to measure the main and secondary outcomes, the definition of the outcome and the instrument to measure.
• Main results: main quantitative results, preferably expressed as an estimate of the magnitude of the effect with its 95% confidence interval. Other results only when they are relevant. If any measure is not submitted by the authors that can facilitate the interpretation of the results (e.g. number of people needed to treat, relative risk reduction, confidence interval...) and it can be calculated from data of the article, it should be calculated, indicating with an asterisk and a footnote on page "calculated from survey data". The likelihood ratios and the ROC curve data shall be stated in studies of diagnostic utility.
• Conclusion: main findings of the study.
• Conflicts of interests: in the interest of transparency the publication requires to declare any competing interests in relation to the submitted articles. Competing interests are defined as those of any kind that could undermine the objectivity, integrity or perceived value of a publication through their potential influence on behaviour or content, or from perception of such potential influences. It is a key paragraph in the biomedical manuscripts. It should be outlined as: “it does not exist” (if the authors explicitly state this fact) “it does exist” (idem, indicating the type of potential conflict under review) or “not stated” (if the original article does not say anything about it).
• Funding: it is related to what was commented in the above paragraph. It should be outlined as “it does not appear” (if the article does not say anything about this) or indicate explicitly the source of funding (pharmaceutical, financial support from a research grant etc).
• #### Review article

• Data sources: it should describe the bibliographic search strategy, indicating the databases, the coverage period, the keywords used and any other filter used to narrow your search (type of study, language).
• Studies included: the criteria to include the studies. If a clear, pre-determined strategy was used to determine which studies were included. The total number of studies included.
• Main results: how are presented the results and which one is the main result. How precise are these results? If a confidence interval of 95% was reported. Describe the sensibility analysis, if done. Other results if they are relevant.
• Conclusion: main conclusion of the study, how you would sum up the bottom-line result of the review in one sentence?
• Conflict of interest: in the same terms as above.
• Funding: related to above. It should be outlined as “it does not appear” (if the article does not say anything about this) or indicate explicitly the source of funding (pharmaceutical, financial support from a research grant etc).
• ### Fourth page: Critical appraisal

Extension: 2,500-3,000 characters (without spaces and with the references included).

We recommend that the authors use the methodological scheme “VARA” (VAlidity, clinical Relevance, Applicability) in order to standardize some aspects of the commentary:
• Justification: the appraisal should start with the justification of the study, trying to place it in the context of the current state of knowledge on the issue and indicating why this study is relevant in this context.
• Validity: the authors should discuss aspects of the study population and clinical setting that might limit its application to our population (external validity of the study). They should also discuss other methodological limitations of the study design (internal validity) that could influence the interpretation of the results (remember that these limitations should not be so important as to invalidate the conclusions, because if this were the case, the article should not be summarized). We could make an exception in the following scenario: an article with important methodological limitations that could have a major impact on the clinical practice of the readers (because it has been published in a prestigious journal). In this situation, it is recommended to make the critical appraisal, highlighting these limitations in order to complement the clinician's perspective on the topic. The Center for Health Evidence and the group CASPe1-3 have developed a number of checklists (In Spanish) to use in the appraisal of different types of studies. This kind of checklists should be used in assessing the validity. For the equivalent tools in English visit the following web addresses: http://www.cebm.net/critical-appraisal/, http://www.phru.nhs.uk/Pages/PHD/resources.htm
• Clinical relevance: it is recommended to compare the results (size of the effect) with those of other studies, especially if they are contradictory, in order to get a better understanding of the conclusions.
• Applicability in clinical practice: then, the authors should try to answer a question like this one: What kind of recommendations can be made from the results of this study? This question addresses the applicability of the results in our everyday clinical practice. Aspects like the impact in clinical practice, the adverse effects and the economic cost should be taken into account.
• Conflict of interests of the authors of the commentary: it should be reported as: “it does not exist” (if the authors explicitly state this fact), or “it does exist” (in this case, describe the potential conflict).
• ### Fifth page: Bibliography

Bibliography: Please, use a maximum of 5 references. References must comply with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals http://www.icmje.org
The URL addresses of the references should be indicated (provided that they exist) after the reference list.

• ### Sixth page: Tables and figures:

If necessary, a maximum of two tables and / or figures can be included. (They are not compulsory).
Thus, after the assessment of the initial studies with the ESE-ARTE score (score for article selection), the short-listed articles would be critically appraised with the methodological scheme “VARA” (VAlidity, clinical Relevance, Applicability). The appraisal will be preceded by the analysis of the justification of the study. The methodological scheme “VARA” will follow the recommendations of the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group (McMaster University)1 and the Critical Appraisal Skills Program (Oxford University)2,3 for the different types of research studies (treatment/prevention; diagnosis; prognosis; etiology; cost; clinical prediction rules; and other designs).

## 2. - Section “Making evidence-based decisions: from research to the patient”

• ### First page: title page

• A title that describes the disease or the subject of the study, the intervention (if possible) and the conclusion.
• Authors complete names, professions, institutions and e-mail.
• Key words: the Index Medicus MeSH terms should be used for this purpose. To check if the chosen keywords are correct the authors can consult the following websites:
• Date of sending the article to the editorial board.
• ### Article

• It should contain the following sections:

• Clinical scenario (maximum 250 words): the authors should describe a clinical situation that raises a doubt or uncertainty in their mind, and then try to transform this doubt in a structured clinical question.
• Clinical question: the posing date of the question should be recorded and the clinical question should be translated into a searchable question using the PICO (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome) method.
• Searching: the date of the searching, the explored databases and the subject index terms, should be reported. References must comply with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals http://www.icmje.org. A maximum of three articles can be selected.
• Structured abstract of the selected articles: the abstract will have the same basic structure as the critically appraised articles and be no more than 2,500 characters long (without spaces). In the event that we select more than one article, the sum of them will not exceed 4,500 characters (if two articles are selected) or 7,000 (if the maximum number of three articles is selected).
• Critical appraisal: this section will have the same basic structure as the critically appraised articles: justification, validity, clinical relevance and applicability in clinical practice. Its length must not exceed 4,500 characters (without spaces).
• Resolution of the clinical scenario: The authors should describe the applicability of the results obtained from medical literature having in mind the experience of the physician who asked the question and the values and preferences of the patient and / or their parents. Its length should not exceed 250 words.
• Bibliography: a maximum of 10 references should be used. References must comply with the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals http://www.icmje.org
The URL address of the references should be indicated (provided that they exist) after the reference list.
• Conflict of interests of the authors of the commentary: conflict of interest should be declared such as: “it does not exist” (in the case that the authors explicitly state this fact), or “yes, it does exist” (if there is anything to declare, indicating, in this case, the type of potential conflict implicated). Each paper in this section should be accompanied by a brief structured abstract.
• Each article should be accompanied by an abstract in Spanish, with its corresponding translation into English. The size of this abstract should not exceed the extent of 150 words, and must be made up with sections containing the following headings:
• Authors' conclusions: this should state in one sentence the main conclusions of the authors of the original article.
• Reviewers' commentary: in this section the reviewers, in no more than two brief sentences, should try to summarize the critically appraised commentary section, offering details about the main methodological aspects of the validity, and comments on the clinical importance and the applicability to clinical practice.
• Keywords: using the MeSH descriptors terms of the National Library of Medicine.
• Tables: optional. If there is any table to be presented and commented, that is taken from the original article reviewed, then it must be included on these table pages.
Each table should include its own title. If any abbreviation is to be used, the appropriate explanation should be noted in the table footnotes.
• Figures: if any picture or graphic is presented it should be attached separately.
Authors are allowed to remit a maximum of two figures for each individual article. The illustrations must be previously converted to the "JPEG" graphic picture format.

## 3.- Section "Bases of evidence-based medicine"

• ### First page: front page or presentation

This cover page must consist of the following elements:

• Descriptive title: it must describe properly the subject that is discussed in the article.
• Authors of the article: it must be provide a profile with complete personal, professional and identifying details of the authors of the article, and must necessarily specify the following items in it: full name, profession, center of work and email address (at least for the first author of the paper, but being advisable and strongly recommended to put forth the email addresses of all the signing authors). The postal mail address of the first author must also be indicated.
• Keywords: all the descriptors assigned must be obtained from the terms included in the Index Medicus (dictionary of "medical descriptors", Medical Subject Headings: MeSH). To check up on the chosen keywords and make sure that they are valid MeSH terms, the following websites can be consulted:
• In English: the National Library of Medicine (USA).
• In Spanish: descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS) in the BIREME website (Virtual Library of the Pan-American Health Organization, WHO), It offers, for on line consultation, a searchable version of the structured vocabulary in three languages (Spanish, Portuguese and English). This resource was developed taking as a starting point the terms contained in the thesaurus of the Medical Subject Headings, at the US National Library of Medicine.
• Sending date: for submission of the article to the editorial team.
• ### Article

Headings: this part may be organized in the way considered necessary to achieve the appropriate structure for the subject to be adequately developed, and with the sections, paragraphs and subparagraphs that are considered necessary so that the text is clear, accurate, concise, understandable to the reader, well organized and provided with an unquestionable teaching and formative nature.

Extension: the recommended size should be no longer than six pages in the double-spaced text format setting.

References: there may be until a maximum of 20 bibliographic references. The references of the articles must be written according to the uniformity requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical Journals. Those requirements can be consulted in this website: http://www.icmje.org

Conflict of interests of the authors of the commentary: it should be expressed as "it does not exist" (if the authors explicitly state this fact), or "yes, it does exist" (if there is any potential existing conflict. In this case a proclamation must be made to indicate this circumstance). The articles of this section shall be submitted with an accompanying structured abstract.

## Annexes

• ### Annex 1:Recommendations for the choice of keywords

All the chosen terms must be selected from the Index Medicus (thesaurus of "medical subject descriptors", Medical Subject Headings: MeSH).

To checkup on the chosen keywords to proof that they are valid terms, a query could be made at the following websites:

• National Library of Medicine (USA), MeSH Browser, MeSH database.
• DeCS Descriptors in Health Sciences of BIREME (Virtual Library of the Pan-American Organization of Health, WHO). It is, actually, a translation rendered into Spanish of the Index Medicus.

• ### Annex 2: Format requirements of the bibliographic references

The recommendations on citations of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE, http://www.icmje.org) shall be followed. They are gathered and described in the document: "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" available for consultation on line at: (https://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html).

The general model must meet the following pattern: last name and initials of the name of all the signing authors. For multi-authored works, each author must be written down, separated by a comma between each other, and with no punctuation marks added after the initials (if there are seven or more authors, only the first six of them will be mentioned in the list; adding instead of the name of the rest of authors, the following notation: "y cols" in the case of a publication written in Spanish, and "et al" if the original work is written in non-Spanish languages).Title of the article in its original language. Abbreviation of the journal (with a dot mark at the end of it) year (;) volume (:) pages (first one-last one).

For example: Fernández Pérez M, López Benito M y Franco Vidal A. Consultas de alta resolución desde la pediatría de Atención Primaria; una apuesta por la calidad asistencial. Rev Pediatr Aten Primaria. 2003;5:133-44.

The references to articles published in electronic journals or electronic resources will follow a similar standard format (author/s, title, owner of the website where the article is displayed), and then be continued with this expression: [date of consult: dd / mm / yyyy]. Available at: ...

For example: International Committee of Medical Journal Editors. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals. ICMJE [accessed: the 25th of February of 2007]. Available at: www.icmje.org/index.html

References to book chapters will follow this format:

Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome Alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002, p. 93-113. [In books written in Spanish, "In" should be replaced by "En" and "editors" by "editor/es"].

In the web site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/journals it is possible to consult the abbreviated names of medical journals.

• ### Annex 3: Checklist before sending manuscripts to submission

Please, before submission, make sure that the documentation required is complete. It is advisable to review the following checklist:

• Letter, undersigned by all the authors, mentioning any possible conflict of interest. In order that we can include an electronic direction in the published article, the email address of the contact person shall be notified to us. It must contain an express acceptance of the journal rules and the publication policies.
• Enclose the tables and figures of the article and a copy of all of them in the required electronic format.
• Check that the text format matches the recommendations: font, spacing, extension, etc.
• Check that the pages are correctly numbered. Every section starts on a new page.
• First Page: title of the article, information about identification of all the authors and centers of practice or work, as well as the postal mail address of the first author. A statement of the funding received.
• Second Page: abstract and key words (in case of original articles, the abstract must be structured). The title and both sections will then follow, translated into English.
• Main text; in case of original articles, they will be structured according to the usual sections.
• All abbreviations should be described the first time they are used.
• All tables and figures should be correctly numbered (Roman numerals for tables and Arabic numerals for the figures) and presented each one on its page.
• They must contain a concise title to facilitate a better understanding of the table or figure contents.
• Photographs should not lead to people identification.
• References must comply with the format requirements (very important).

• ### Annex 4: Help tools for the elaboration of scientific articles

Additional help tools for the elaboration of scientific articles can be found in the next resources:

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ISSN | 1885-7388