Authors’ conclusions: primary individual protection produced by conjugate meningococcal ACWY vaccine is robust up to one year after vaccination. Individual protection increases with the age; therefore, the optimal age to vaccinate is probably 12 to 15 years.
Reviewers’ commentary: the high rate of nasopharynx meningococcal carriers, the adolescents’ close get-together and the emergence of the serogroup W would make advisable to booster adolescents with conjugate ACWY meningococcal vaccine, being the optimal age between age 12 and 15 years.
Ortega Páez E, Esparza Olcina MJ. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:50
Authors’ conclusions: exposure to infliximab is not associated with an increased risk of malignancy or hemophagocytic syndrome in children with inflammatory bowel disease. Exposure to thiopurines is an important antecedent for the development of these complications.
Reviewers’ commentary: the use of infliximab and other biological therapies does not seem to increase the risk of onset of tumors in the medium term, although it would be advisable to prolong the follow-up time. Primary and secondary prevention measures should be recommended, especially if patients are treated with thiopurines and have not had primoinfection by Epstein-Barr virus.
Pérez-Moneo Agapito B, Molina Arias M. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:51
Authors’ conclusions: tonsillectomy has a moderate effect on the reduction of the frequency of tonsillitis and its consequences in the following years. This effect disappears with time (after the first year).
Reviewers’ commentary: this study gathers studies of different type, with different risks of bias. Some of the studies have serious methodological flaws, especially in relation to the diagnosis of tonsillitis. The conclusions favor the validity of the review, due to the fact that all of them point to a similar effect of tonsillectomy. The effect of tonsillectomy is limited, and this procedure must be considered to be performed only in selected cases. This study can be useful in the moment of considering the referral to an otorhinolaryngologist for tonsillectomy.
Authors’ conclusions: transplanted pediatric patients are at a higher risk of cancer than the general population. The most frequent histological type is non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with a greater risk during the first year after transplantation, in the receptors with high susceptibility to primary infection by Epstein Barr virus and in the intestinal posttransplant.
Reviewers’ commentary: This is the study with the largest sample in pediatrics to date, and demonstrates a higher risk of tumor development in solid organ transplant patients, compared to the general population. In the study, EBV infection is suggested to have a probable role as a determinant in the appearance of them, so that future action against infection by this virus may be of key importance.
Martín Masot R, Ortega Páez E. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:53
Authors’ conclusions: none of the ten HLA class II gene alleles previously reported to be related with short-term antibody response to hepatitis B vaccine is associated with the long-term antibody response after vaccination during infancy.
Reviewers’ commentary: despite some differences in the study population from the population of our environment, we can conclude that it would not be necessary to determine the HLA class II alleles to detect children at risk of vaccine failure against hepatitis B.
Fraile Astorga G, Molina Arias M. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:54
Authors’ conclusions: the use of FAST echo in the initial evaluation in the emergency room of stable children with blunt torso trauma does not improve the detection of intra-abdominal injuries nor does it decrease the stay in the emergency department, nor does it reduce hospital costs compared with the standard management of these cases without FAST echo.
Reviewers’ commentary: according to the results obtained, performing FAST echo in children with blunt torso trauma in a situation of hemodynamic stability is inefficient and does not change the prognosis of the patients, and therefore there is no evidence to change clinical attitude or current recommendations.
Flores Villar S, Ortega Páez E. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:55
Authors’ conclusions: in a prospective study, we validated the IgA anti tissue transglutaminase procedure and the IgA anti tissue transglutaminase-IgG anti deamidated gliadin procedure in identification of pediatric patients with or without celiac disease, without biopsy.
Reviewers’ commentary: although serological determinations are useful for the diagnosis of celiac disease and can allow diagnosis without duodenal biopsy, it seems reasonable to continue with the current recommendations, especially in groups of patients with low risk of disease.
Molina Arias M, Pérez-Moneo Agapito B. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:56
Authors’ conclusions: the implementation of the Spanish smoke-free policies was associated with a risk reduction for preterm births and low birth weight infants. This association strengthens the application of a smoke-free legislation in the prevention of pregnancy complications.
Reviewers’ commentary: it cannot be established a causal relationship between the implementation of the anti-smoking legislation and the decrease of prematurity. However, given the harmful effects of smoking on fetal development and health of the newborn, development of comprehensive smoke-free legislation to minimize fetal exposure to this environmental risk factor is supported.
Rivero Martín MJ, Aparicio Rodrigo M. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:57
Authors’ conclusions: from the meta-analysis carried out, it can be suggested that the vaccine against rotavirus is associated with an increased risk of intussusception, especially after the administration of the first dose.
Reviewers’ commentary: the new rotavirus vaccines (Rotateq® y Rotarix®) are an effective tool to prevent rotavirus diarrhea, especially in children under one year of age. There is an increased risk of intussusception after the first dose, about which the patients should be informed, but this risk is much lower than with the original vaccine RotaShield®.
Ruiz-Canela Cáceres J, García Vera C. Evid Pediatr. 2017;13:58