Authors’ conclusions: the impact on the population of the anti-bullying measures applied against school bullying is effective despite some geographical differences. This meta-analysis justifies the need of designed trials that assess the optimal timing and duration of this intervention.
Reviewers’ commentary: the advice of pedagogues and psychologists, organizing assemblies on the subject, working on Emotional Intelligence in the classroom or instructing children from the first stages in the peaceful resolution of conflicts are useful tools for the prevention of Bullying.
Fraile Astorga G, Flores Villar S. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:15
Authors’ conclusions: in patients older than 12 years with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, the use of evinacumab compared with placebo resulted in a reduction of LDL cholesterol levels at 24 weeks.
Reviewers’ commentary: treatment with evinacumab appears to be a safe and effective adjunct to the usual treatment of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Molina Arias M, Martín Masot R. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:16
Authors’ conclusions: in pediatric patients with suspected pertussis, there are differences between those with positive PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae and those with positive PCR for Bordetella according to clinical presentation. Either way, there are no relevant differences when patients with confirmed Mycoplasma infection are compared with the negative PCR group. The impact of this findings in terms of patient outcomes is unclear.
Reviewers’ commentary: the interpretation of a positive PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with suspected pertussis is difficult due to the possibility of carrier status, a high frequency of coinfections in some contexts and the absence of correlation with relevant clinical variables. More research is required.
Authors’ conclusions: compared to guidelines‐guided strategy, treating infants with viral bronchiolitis using the phenotypic‐guided bronchodilator therapy strategy is a more cost‐effective strategy, because it involves a lower probability of hospital admission at lower total treatment costs. Randomized controlled trials using biomarkers to stratify patients most likely to respond to bronchodilators are necessary.
Reviewers’ commentary: the available information does not seem sufficient to make changes to the current recommendations in acute bronchiolitis management. There is still need for a predictive model that allows to identify potential responders to bronchodilators, as well as a clinical trial with a sufficient sample size to estimate the effectiveness of the strategy of its selective use.
Authors’ conclusions: alarm interventions for nocturnal enuresis appear to be effective. The combination of alarm with desmopressin is probably more effective than desmopressin alone. The alarm treatment has minimal adverse reactions what makes it to continue being an important strategy in the treatment of enuresis.
Reviewers’ commentary: this complex systematic review offers conclusive results on the effectiveness of the alarms and their scarce adverse events. The alarm produces similar results than behavioral interventions and improve them when added to them. Alarms also obtain better results than the different drugs with which they have been compared and with less adverse events. Therefore, alarms still have an important place in the treatment of enuresis.
Esparza Olcina MJ, Fraile Astorga G. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:19
Authors’ conclusions: in this population-based cohort study, exposure to maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment was significantly associated with mental and behavioral disorders in children. These findings may help inform decisions about maternal antenatal corticosteroid treatment.
Reviewers’ conclusions: antenatal treatment with corticosteroids, in premature newborn children, has shown its short-term usefulness in reducing neonatal morbidity/mortality, but there are doubts about long-term alterations in neurodevelopment, which seem to be more evident in children born at term. It would be advisable to assess these aspects when giving antenatal corticosteroids to women at risk of preterm labor, especially in case of risk of late preterm birth.
Ortega Páez E, Ruiz-Canela Cáceres J. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:20
Authors' conclusions: among premature infants, nasal continuous positive airway pressure provided with nasal mask is more effective in preventing intubation and mechanical ventilation within 72 hours of initiating the support compared with nasal continuous positive airway pressure provided with binasal prongs.
Reviewers' commentary: nasal continuous positive airway pressure applied with nasal mask reduces the incidence of endotracheal intubation/mechanical ventilation within first 72 hours, reduces the occurrence of nasal trauma and surfactant treatment in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome more effectively than nasal continuous positive airway pressure applied with binasal prongs.
Aparicio Rodrigo M, Cuestas Montañés EJ. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:21
Authors' conclusions: valaciclovir, in pregnant women with primary cytomegalovirus infection in early pregnancy, is effective in reducing the rate of fetal infection. Its administration in early stages of pregnancy can prevent pregnancy terminations and newborns with congenital infection by the virus.
Reviewers' commentary: this randomized clinical trial seems to demonstrate that the administration of Valaciclovir in pregnant women infected with cytomegalovirus during the first trimester of gestation significantly reduces the probability of fetal infection. However, there are no significant differences in clinical manifestations in infants between the intervention and control groups.
Flores Villar S, García Vera C. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:22
Authors’ conclusions: ondansetron is the only effective antiemetic to achieve the cessation of vomiting, avoid admissions and reduce the need for intravenous rehydration, being also safe in children with acute gastroenteritis.
Reviewers’ commentary: this study is a synthesis of evidence on the efficacy and safety of antiemetics to avoid admissions due to a common condition, such as vomiting associated with acute gastroenteritis. With a rigorous methodology it shows that the only drug that should be used is ondansetron.
Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez E, Martínez Rubio M.V. Evid Pediatr. 2021;17:23