Authors´ conclusions: This review shows that MMR, MMRV and MMR+V vaccines are effective in preventing the infection of children by measles, mumps, rubella and chickenpox, with no evidence of an increased risk of autism or encephalitis and a small risk of febrile seizure.
Reviewers´ commentary: the review of childhood immunization with varicella and MMR shows that it is an effective and safe intervention, associated with mild side effects and less frequently than those occurring with natural infection. The MMR has not been shown to be associated with encephalopathy or autism.
Fernández Rodríguez MM, Aparicio Rodrigo M. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:2
Authors´ conclusions:In the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic 1 in 4 youth globally are experiencing clinically elevated depression symptoms, while 1 in 5 youth are experiencing clinically elevated anxiety symptoms. These pooled estimates are double of prepandemic estimates.
Reviewers´ commentary:this meta-analysis provides an estimate of clinical elevated depression and generalized anxiety symptoms globally among youth during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies should include and focus on groups at increased risk for mental health problems, and longitudinal studies with baseline estimates of anxiety and depression are needed.
Authors’ conclusions: pulse oximetry screening is an effective tool for identifying critical congenital heart defects and secondary conditions. Pulse oximetry was successfully implemented with few missed screens and was highly specific. Elimination of the second rescreen in the pulse oximetry algorithm would have resulted in a minimal increase in false-positive results and faster evaluation of newborns with critical congenital heart defects.
Reviewers’ commentary: pulse oximetry screening for early detection of critical congenital heart disease with elimination of the second rescreen has been shown to be cost-effective and lifesaving. Thus, at present, the pulse oximetry paradigm has been widely accepted and adopted.
Authors’ conclusions: a COVID-19 vaccination regimen consisting of two 10-μg doses of BNT162b2 administered 21 days apart was found to be safe, immunogenic, and efficacious in children 5 to 11 years of age.
Reviewers’ commentary: vaccine BNT162b2 produces a robust immune response similar to young adults. It is a safe vaccine with transient mild to moderate reactogenicity. The vaccine efficaciousness is high against COVID-19, but low incidence of serious illness in this age group, the short follow-up of the vaccinated group and the mutation capacity of the virus makes it necessary to continue investigating to measure the impact on hospitalization and protection against serious COVID-19.
Fraile Astorga G, Esparza Olcina MJ. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:5
Authors’ conclusions: the neutrophils to lymphocytes ratio can be used as a marker of gastrointestinal involvement in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.
Reviewers’ commentary: despite being based on case-control studies, the results of this systematic review provide evidence for the use of the ratio between neutrophils and lymphocytes as a marker of gastrointestinal involvement in patients with Henoch-Schönlein purpura, it should be added its accessibility and easy determination.
Rivero Martín MJ, Molina Arias M. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:6
Authors‘ conclusions: among children with community acquired pneumonia discharged from an emergency department or hospital ward (within 48 hours), lower-dose outpatient oral amoxicillin was non inferior to higher dose, and 3-day duration was non inferior to 7 days, with regard to need for antibiotic re-treatment.
Reviewers‘ conclusions: the data from this study invite us to review in our environment the guidelines used in children in the treatment of pneumonia in the community, with the purpose of clarifying if the shorter duration of treatment and lower dosage could lead to benefits, but there are limitations in the study for its conclusions to be applicable in our country.
Ruiz-Canela Cáceres J, Pérez-Moneo Agapito B. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:7
Authors´ conclusions: Preterm and early term birth were associated with increased risk of autism spectrum disorder in boys and girls. These associations were largely independent of covariates and shared familial factors, consistent with a potential causal relationship.
Reviewers´ commentary: Prematurity could independently be responsible for 3.7% of autism at the population level. These data are relevant at the public health level and reinforce the role of early care in premature infants for the early recognition and treatment of autism.
Ortega Páez E, Oltra Benavent M. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:8
Authors´ conclusions: The use of malaria chemoprophylaxis in conjunction with the malaria vaccine clearly reduces the incidence of uncomplicated malaria, severe malaria, and death from malaria, and outperforms any other preventive intervention option against malaria.
Reviewers´ commentary: In this study, the RTS, S / AS01 vaccine has protected against uncomplicated malaria infection in a way that is not inferior to chemoprophylaxis, and the joint administration of both treatments has produced a greater decrease in the incidence of the disease than each one separately. Currently, and pending the appearance of new vaccines and more effective treatments, the strategy of associating the different treatments available to reduce the burden of malaria in countries with moderate or high transmission seems appropriate.
Aizpurua Galdeano P, Flores Villar S. Evid Pediatr. 2022;18:9