Authors’ conclusions: rotavirus vaccination with live attenuated viruses did not alter the occurrence of diabetes mellitus type 1 but decreased the prevalence of celiac disease in childhood and adolescence. We propose that wild-type rotavirus may trigger celiac disease and the triggering effect can be prevented or reduced by rotavirus vaccination.
Reviewers’ commentary: rotavirus vaccine does not increase the risk of developing autoimmune diseases and it is even associated in this study with a decrease in the prevalence of celiac disease.
Fraile Astorga G, Molina Arias M. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:30
Authors’ conclusions: peripheral intravenous catheterization, using vein visualization device support, reduces the number of attempts for patient and the operation duration and increases the rate of first stick success.
Reviewers’ commentary: peripheral venous canalization devices reduce the number of attempts and the duration of the procedure and also increase the rate of success at the first attempt. This benefit would only be applicable to children with difficult canalization. More studies would be convenient given the discrepancy in the literature.
Pérez-Moneo Agapito B, Juanes de Toledo B. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:31
Authors’ conclusions: the tetravalent vaccine against 4 meningococcal B antigens is associated with a relative risk reduction of 42% of cases of meningococcal B disease in children from 0 to 12 months of age in the United Kingdom (moderate GRADE evidence). Extrapolating this risk reduction to Spain's baseline risk, 19,729 children under one year of age should be vaccinated to avoid a case.
Reviewers’ commentary: the best evidence on the efficacy of the vaccine comes from a cohort study, which is consistent with the available information on immune response. The vaccine seems effective but its efficiency is not clear, therefore, we still need more information to document decision making. Considering the low incidence rate of invasive meningococcal disease, it is unlikely that this information will come from clinical trials, consequently, surveillance and cost-effectiveness studies should be considered.
Ochoa Sangrador C, Molina Arias M, Ortega Páez E. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:32
Authors’ conclusions: in the outcome of asthma after bronchiolitis relevant risk factors have been identified: male sex, being older than 5 months with more than two episodes of bronchiolitis, atopy or family history of atopy and allergies. Their identification would allow the physicians to give better health education to the family, and the children could be followed more intensively in primary care.
Reviewers’ commentary: according to this study of clinical reports, when our patient does not have a series of risk factors, it is highly probable that he or she will not suffer from asthma in one years’ time. But this study presents methodological problems that hinder a high confidence in its conclusions.
Cuervo Valdés JJ, Esparza Olcina MJ. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:33
Authors’ conclusions: inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for a child´s initial acute bronchitis episode predicted likelihood of antibiotic prescribing for subsequent acute bronchitis episodes.
Reviewers’ commentary: an incorrect antibiotic prescription in a first process of acute bronchitis can condition the antibiotic prescription in later processes of bronchitis. Professionals must be careful with the prescription of antibiotics and limit them to the processes in which they are indicated.
Aparicio Rodrigo M, Rodríguez-Salinas Pérez E. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:34
Authors’ conclusions: a single brief general inhaled anesthesia in infants does not alter neurodevelopment outcomes at 5 years of age, compared with awake-regional anesthesia, in a predominantly male population.
Reviewers’ commentary: the use of single inhalation anesthesia seems safe, in terms of neurodevelopment in children, without having yet a definitive response to other circumstances, such as the use of multiple anesthetics or repeated exposures.
Authors’ conclusions: in child from 1 to 5 years old, high-dose vitamin D supplementation (2000 UI/day), compared to recommended vitamin D dose (400 UI/day), does not suppose an advantage in reducing viral upper respiratory tract infection symptom severity, so its use is not recommended.
Reviewers’ commentary: high dose vitamin D supplementation does not reduce the severity of symptoms of upper respiratory infections in preschoolers. It could be studied in our environment whether this intervention is useful compared to placebo and if there are differences according to baseline vitamin D serum levels.
Gimeno Díaz de Atauri Á, Martín Masot R. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:36
Authors’ conclusions: children and adolescents with a high level of depression symptoms and of behaviour disorders, have the higher risk of getting involved in the choking game.
Reviewers’ commentary: it cannot be established a causal relation between the analysed risk factors and the choking game in this study. Nevertheless, the prevalence estimations do allow identify school population at risk to whom address preventive measures.
Esparza Olcina MJ, Ochoa Sangrador C. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:37
Authors’ conclusions: children with inflammatory bowel disease who were followed until their adult age showed 3 times more risk of death than healthy controls. The relative risk for death has not decreased with development of new drugs for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.
Reviewers’ commentary: childhood onset inflammatory bowel disease is related with higher risk of mortality in all ages. Associated causes are tumors, infections, respiratory and digestive diseases. Studies must be done on the identification and control of risk factors related to the disease itself as well as to its treatments.
Pérez-Moneo Agapito B, Llerena Santa Cruz E. Evid Pediatr. 2019;15:38